erori: Defense Resources Management in the 21st century

15th edition of the International Scientific Conference

Defense Resources Management in the 21st Century

November 12th - 13th 2020, Brasov, Romania

SPECIAL ON-LINE EDITION (on the MICROSOFT TEAM platform)


                 

                 





NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY „CAROL I”
REGIONAL DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT STUDIES



DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY


International Scientific Conference organized by the Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies

November 12th - 13th 2020, Braşov

NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY "CAROL I"
PUBLISHING HOUSE
BRASOV, 2020


Organising Committee:


COORDINATORS:

  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Associate professor Maria CONSTANTINESCU, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Associate professor Vlad DUMITRACHE, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

MODERATORS:

  • Professor Cezar VASILESCU, PhD, eng.
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Associate Professor Aura CODREANU, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Asociate Professor Maria CONSTANTINESCU, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Associate Professor Vlad DUMITRACHE, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD
    (DRESMARA, Romania)

  • Liliana FILIP, PhD Candidate
    (Political Research Group, Romania)

EDITOR:
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD.
ISSN: 2248 - 2245 (CD-ROM)
ISSN: 2248 - 2385 (online)













SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE:

  • Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU
  • Teodor FRUNZETI
  • Emilian DOBRESCU
  • Ghiță BÂRSAN
  • Constantin – Iulian VIZITIU
  • Octavian TĂRĂBUŢĂ
  • Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN
  • Ileana TACHE
  • Mary S. McCULLY
  • Fahri ERENEL
  • Mustafa Kemal TOPCU
  • William BARTLETT
  • Eleftherios THALASSINOS
  • Jean-Pierre ALLEGRET
  • Andrzej SOBON
  • Maciej MARSZALEK.
  • Elzbieta Jadwiga SRYMASISKA
  • Agnieszka BRELIK
  • Ramona RUPEIKA – APOGA
  • Ebru CAYMAZ
  • Vladan HOLCNER
  • Igor SOFRONESCU
  • Svetlana CEBOTARI
  • Larisa PLOP
  • Stelian PÂNZARU
  • Virgil ENE-VOICULESCU
  • Vasile CĂRUŢAŞU
  • Liviu FILIP
  • Edith Mihaela DOBRESCU
  • Anca DINICU
  • Ioan Gabriel POPA
  • Dumitru IANCU
  • Daniel-Sorin CONSTANTIN
  • Dănuț-Eugeniu MOȘTEANU
  • Aurelian RAȚIU
  • BADEA Dorel
  • Dan COLESNIUC
  • Olga Maria Cristina BUCOVEŢCHI
  • Ioan VIRCA
  • Cezar VASILESCU
  • Ion ROCEANU
  • Alexandru STOICA
  • Florin Eduard GROSARU
  • Maria CONSTANTINESCU
  • Aura CODREANU
  • Brînduşa Maria POPA
  • Cristina ANTONOAIE
  • Vlad DUMITRACHE

ARTICLES


INTERNET USE IN THE EU COUNTRIES

ANTONOAIE Cristina, University Lecturer, PhD*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies – NATO Partnership Training and Education Centre,Brasov,Romania
Abstract
Using the Internet today is a regular activity, especially in this time of pandemics, when a large part of the population is working and buying from home. With the help of EUROSTAT databases we have analyzed in this paper the evolution of the main activities on the Internet, taking into consideration the years 2007, 2015, and 2019.
Key words
Internet use; information; search; e-mail; goods; services
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PRESENT AND NECESSITY IN THE NATIONAL APPROACH OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES PROTECTION IN THE CONTEXT OF HYBRID WARFARE THREATS

ARAMĂ, Ghiță, military instructor*

*“Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy of Sibiu
Abstract
The contemporary citizen is increasingly facing challenges, for which he was not only not prepared, but which even in the most pessimistic scenarios he could not anticipate. They fall into the category of specific threats to hybrid conflict, a highly effective way of influencing and destabilizing the national security and security of a state through the effects it can cause on critical infrastructures. This paper is the first step in an extensive scientific research project that aims to identify vulnerabilities, risks and threats to national security and to create the prerequisites for raising awareness, analysis and elimination, where possible, of risks, as well as for the development/strengthening of the legislative framework for critical infrastructures.
Key words
threats; risks; hybrid warfare; critical infrastructure; resilience;
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BUDGET OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE AT A PUBLIC INSTITUTION

BACIU Claudiu, M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The aspects presented in the folowing article refers to the revenue and spendings budget at a public institution level. In chapter ,, Substantation of the revenue and expenditure budget at the level of the administrative territorial unit” we enumerate the procedures that aply in the budgetary proces and principal and budgetary rules. In the second part of this chapter we are presented with data refering to streamlining local budget expenditures. Trough fig.1 ,,Expenditures from the local budget structured by parts” we will be able to understand details concerning expenses arising fron a local budget. In conclusion , we identify the clonclusions that we can see after a careful study of the articleand the bibliography.
Key words
budget; public; institution; administrative; territorial unit;
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MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION IN MILITARY ORGANIZATION

BARBU (UȚĂ), Denisa-Cristina M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Human factor is the most important resource every organization can have therefore it is necessary to work with motivated employees, or to be concerned about their level of job satisfaction because all processes inside an organization are the results of their work and satisfaction. Motivation includes the needs or expectations, behavior directed toward goals and the feedback on meeting the initial needs. Job satisfaction represents a set of feelings of varying positive or negative affect that a person has with respect to different aspects of his overall job situation. The purpose of this research is to investigate the interrelationshiop between the two behavioural constructs of job motivational potential level and job satisfaction among employee from military organizations and establish how motivation dimensions are related to job satisfaction fields.
Key words
motivation; job satisfaction; managers; employee; work; military organizations;
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ANALYSIS OF THE AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT

BÎRSAN, Laurențiu-Dumitru, M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
This project follows the analysis of airspace management from the perspective of the 2 major flight authorities EASA and FAA. The following pages will make it possible to get acquainted with the two authorities as well as with ICAO (INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION), an organization under the jurisdiction of which most aircraft in the world fly. It will be defined certain concepts that delimit the airspace in areas in order to make possible the management of the airspace as efficient and effective as possible. Also it will be presented certain areas of airspace reserved for different types of special activities (such as military). All these concepts are analyzed to understand the need for airspace management to operate it at a maximum level and in complete safety.
Key words
airspace; authority; area; organization; aircraft;
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CHALLENGES ADDRESSED TO THE MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS REGARDING THE MANAGEMENT OF PUBLIC INFORMATION. CASE STUDY STRAVA MAPS.

BOJOR Laviniu, Associate professor PhD.*,

*Land Forces Academy “Nicolae Bălcescu”, Military Science Department, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract
Smart devices have become the perfect accessories of the knowledge-based society. Military organizations, like civilians, try to benefit from the usefulness of social media applications that surround us today, but the main feature of these tools, to share data and user-generated media content, is a challenge to managing the information resource in the military field. The paper analyzes the effects generated by the use of the Strava Maps application inside the military bases and the security breach generated by the online posting of StravaMaps.
Key words
Strava Maps, Heat Maps, crowdsourcing, privacy culture, social media.
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BUILDING RESILIENCE AGAINST HYBRID THREATS. TRANSATLANTIC LESSONS LEARNT FROM STATES AND ORGANIZATIONS

BRÂNDA, Oana-Elena, PhD.*
SAULIUC, Adriana, PhD.*


*Lecturer in International Relations, Titu Maiorescu University, Bucharest
Abstract
The aim of the present article is to address the main techniques used by states and international and regional organizations alike ( with a special focus on NATO and the European Union) in order to assess hybrid threats and create the appropriate response in the form of resilience. In this regard, examples of good practices taken both from countries confronted with such threats( as was the case of the Baltic countries) as well as from organizations which have devised policies and created an institutional framework to deal with such threats, shall be analysed in order to highlight the most productive approaches. The article shall be constructed in an ascending manner, beginning with a brief analysis of the hybrid threats, followed by the corresponding reactions taken by NATO and the European Union and their particular perspectives on building resilience, and ending with specific examples of countries which had to manage such threats and prevent them from becoming recurrent, as was the case of the Baltic states.
Key words
resilience, threats, hybrid, security.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE MILITARY ENVIRONMENT

BRĂNICI Ionuț, M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The nonverbal communication is esential for people and we can not talk or we can not work as a military officer without this type of communication. It is very important for an officer to understand the feelings of people under his command. In this presentation I will also explain the importance of this type of communication in military environment. In military, to understand your team body is a matter of live or die. One misunderstand and you and your team are dead.
Key words
nonverbal communication, officer, misunderstand.
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A RENEWED INTEREST IN SCIENCE DIPLOMACY AND THE ARCTIC

CAYMAZ Ebru *
ERENEL Fahri **


*Assistant Professor, Ph.D., Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University,Canakkale, Turkey
**Associate Professor, Ph.D., Department of Business Administration, Istinye University, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract
Science diplomacy can be defined as building scientific collaborations among states to deal with common problems as well as addressing global challenges. This term also involves building constructive partnerships globally owing to the fact that both science and diplomacy is associated with open-ended negotiations based upon peaceful processes. After the end of the Cold War, there has been a remarkable interest in science diplomacy especially in the UK, United States, Japan and China more recently. On the other hand the Arctic region, which is perceived as a unique zone of peace and scientific collaboration, has been undergoing substantial transformation due to human induced climate change. Therefore, variety of emerging actors has accelerated both scientific and social cooperation across the region which determines the nexus between science diplomacy and geopolitics as well. This process has also transformed the structure of the Arctic Council and non-Arctic states are accepted as observers. Consequently, a more complicated and many-sided diplomatic system has emerged involving scientific institutions, non-governmental organizations, media and the network of regulators alongside governments. The aim of this study is to examine the role of science diplomacy in Arctic affairs. The role of emergent actors in the region is also discussed.
Key words
Arctic; Arctic Council; Arctic Governance; Governance; Science Diplomacy.
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THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL”S MANAGEMENT IN COVID-19 CRISIS

CEBOTARI, Svetlana, Associate Professor PhD, habil.*

*Military Academy of the Armed Forces ,,Alexandru cel Bun”; Moldova State University, Faculty of International Relations, Political and Administrative Sciences, Department of International Relations, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova
Abstract
Currently, we assist to a conditional reality imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, with both immediate and long-lasting repercussions on international system and on the behavior of each state. For this reason and because the new virus has a dynamic evolution in time and space, a research of the impact of the new virus is needed not only from a biogenetic perspective but also in the context of other fields, including the international relations realm. The events we are witnessing at present challenge to keep up with transformations taking place on the international arena, especially those in the field of virology. As epidemics over time, viruses that cause them change and occur, constant remains only the fact that they will always influence not only interpersonal relations but impose conditions for new realities in the system of international relations. This article aims to highlight the main gaps in the work of the institution responsible for maintaining peace and security on the international arena, especially in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
Key words
pandemic, impact, state, politics, coronavirus, international relations, the United Nations, the Security Council.
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A COST-BASED DEFENSE DECISION APPROACH IN VOLATILE ENVIRONMENT

CIOACĂ Cătălin*

*”Henri Coanda” Air Force Academy, MMS Department, 160 M. Viteazul, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The paper captures the effect of uncertainties from the security environment on the investment decision in equipment purchase or modernization. Partial irreversibility and limited flexibility specific to military decisions create the context for the introduction of opportunity cost into the analysis. The problem of defense resource allocation is analyzed based on the principles of complex system engineering. The design of allocation strategies is analyzed by integrating dynamic defense capabilities through the paradigm of real option analysis. Based on obtained results, the strategic decision maker can better understand the spectrum of possible solutions and how to act in case of major shocks.
Key words
volatile environment, real option analysis, decision making, crisis cycle, stochastic life cycle cost.
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EMPLOYEE PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

CIUCA Anca Larisa, M.A. student*
CODREANU Aura, Associate Professor PhD*


*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Successful organizations never forget that their employees have been fulfilling a number of different roles both inside their work life and as part of their own definition of living their lives. Consequently, they approach their employees as a whole and not just as tools fulfilling specific functions and job related tasks. Consequently, to achieve sustained competitive advantage organizations must manage their employees as portfolios of assets fulfilling work-life roles. To do so, such entities need to capitalize on their employees’ previous and future personal development, and to further contribute to their professional development in order to ensure the efficiency and effectiveness of their strategies.
Key words
sustained competitive advantage; personal and professional development; work-life roles; integrated human resource management system; PESTLE.
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ROMANIA’S NEW NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE COUNTRY’S
DEFENCE – A STRATEGY FOR A VOLATILE ENVIRONMENT?


CONSTANTINESCU Maria, Associate Professor, PhD.*
DUMITRACHE Vlad, Associate Professor, PhD.*
POPA Brindusa Maria, Lecturer, PhD.*


*DRESMARA/ National Defense University Carol I/ Brasov/ Romania
Abstract
The current strategic security and defense context is characterized by uncertainty and complex risks and threats. The border between conventional and unconventional risks and threats becomes blurred, generating additional challenges in building an appropriate response from the countries, which have to deal with a very fluid environment. The aim of this paper is to outline Romania’s strategic direction in this new and challenging environment, based on the new National Strategy for the Country’s defense.
Key words
defense, threats, fluid, environment, challenges.
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RUSSIA’s HYBRID WARFARE

CROITORU Constantin*

*Romanian Ministry of National Defense
Abstract
Hybrid threat actors seek to master unrestricted operational art in order to reconcile overmatch and protect or advance their interests. As interest-based rational actors, hybrid threats translate strategic intent into unrestricted distributed operations. As an unrestricted collective methodology, the hybrid concept bypasses the cognitive boundaries of traditional threat characterization and the application of organized collective violence. The paper aims to unveil, briefly, the evolution of the term hybrid threat and emphasize, by analyzing a few study cases, its energy component and possible future developments.
Key words
Hybrid, threats, collective methodology.
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THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS

DAHA (BOCOS), Mihaela Dorina, M.A. student*

*National Defense University “Carol I”
Regional Department For Defense Resources Management Studies (Dresmara)
Abstract
Given that in everyday life, most of the time, we interact in group at work.This article aims to analyze conflict management in the organizational environment. There are multiple methods of conflict management but this article focuses on highlighting the role that communication has in the process of managing conflict situations. Conflicts are inevitable in any organization, regardless of its type. In this article we start from the premise according to which approximately 90% of the conflicts appeared in the society, are based on communication deficiencies.
Key words
conflict management; organizational environment; communication deficiencies.
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ECONOMIC CHALLENGES IN DEFENSE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DUE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN: EU, NATO, ROMANIA AND THE USA

DUMITRACHE Vlad Ionuț, PhD, Assistant Professor*
CONSTANTINESCU Maria, PhD, Assistant Professor*
POPA Brîndușa Maria, PhD, University Lecturer*


*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies – NATO Partnership Training and Education Centre, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant influence on all areas of the human society, in many countries of the world, and the defense resources management area is no exception. The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges generated by the pandemic in the field of DRM, through a comparative analysis of the EU, NATO, Romania and the US. The paper aims to observe the efforts put in by using defense resources in fighting the COVID pandemic, as well as understanding what is the risk of reallocating some of the resources from their original purpose, with a financial recession looming as well for the foreseeable future. While the paper will tend to focus on economic challenges, it will also present all type of resources involved in fighting the pandemic in terms of defense allocation, like logistic, human and information resources as well.
Key words
defense resources, burden share, defense expenditures, NATO and EU complementarity.
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COMMUNICATION WITHIN NATO – PROCESS AND OPINION SHAPING

FILIMON Ciprian*

*Romanian Ministry of National Defense, Romania
Abstract
While a lot of material has been produced concerning NATO overall communication process, ranging from Strategic Communication, policies, structures and strategies, communicaters and their roles and prerogatives, not much was said or is even known about the Alliance’s internal communication process, procedures and working culture. This is especially important in order to understand the fabric, culture and the modus operandi of the Alliance, which creates conditions for cooperation and finally ensure its’ success. This paper takes a glimpse in the core of the NATO HQ and briefly explains how the bussiness, aimed at negotiating compromise and obtaining consensus, is conducted.
Key words
military advice; silence procedure; Strategic Commanders; tiger team; collaborative working; nation’s red lines; espresso diplomacy; outreach; e-PRIME; cooperative security, NATO partnerships.
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WHY AN ANALYSIS OF AN ORGANIZATION’S INTERNAL SYSTEM?

GROSARU Dragoș-Florin, M.A. student*

*Regional Department For Defense Resources Management Studies (Dresmara)
Abstract
Today, more than ever, an organization’s managers need to ground their decision-making process in as much information and data as possible in a short period of time. Thus, they need to administer as efficiently and effectively as possible all organization’s operations in all fields of action - human resources, financial resources, logistics resources and information resources, accounting, health and safety, environmental impact, customer and supplier relations, etc. Furthermore, they must be able to quickly identify potential risks and handle them before they become reality and develop negative effects. Consequently, the analysis of an organization’s internal system provides its managers with the needed information and, at the same time, it converts into a valuable reference framework for the identification and management of risks, as well as for the identification of opportunities to improve and render the processes within the organization more effective.
Key words
organization, management, analysis, organization resources.
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INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MILITARY SPENDING AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
(INVESTIGATION BY GMM TECHNIQUE)


HARUTYUNYAN, Gayane Ernik PhD in Economics, Associate Professor*

*Strategic Gaming and Modeling Group , National Defense Research University, Ministry of Defense, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia
Abstract
The reasoning about interrelationship between state’s military spending and economic growth have never been apodictic truth, providing scientists with fertile ground for meaningful discussions. In this study, the impact of military spending on economic growth was examined for 15 countries with highest share of military spending in gross government expenditure, using the GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) over the period 2005-2017. For comparative analysis, we added dummy variables in the regression model to assess the impact of military spending on growth in each country separately. The results of study allow us to conclude that in the 15 surveyed countries the significant negative correlation exists between government military spending and GDP as well as the positive correlation exists between non-military spending and GDP. Herewith, an analysis carried out for individual countries by using dummy variables technique, showed that for some countries the influence of military spending on economic growth is positive, and it is negative for other countries.
Key words
military spending; non-military spending; economic growth; defense industry; generalized method of moments; dummy variable.
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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KHOMEINI’S AND FARAJ’S FUNDAMENTALIST ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVES. STRATEGIES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF AN ISLAMIC STATE

HÎNCU Alexandru, M.A*

*The National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, Department of International Relations and European Integration, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Religious fundamentalism, a concept of the twentieth century does not necessarily imply extremism. Following the interpretation of sacred writings, the meaning of internal or external jihad, as well as for the other concepts is adapted to current conditions and needs. The movements are fundamentalist Islamic, because they use in the first instance the sacred texts to decipher distinct solutions to current problems. Islam has undergone a long evolution, initially being moderate and later radicalizing within the Muslim Brotherhood. Faraj's and Khomeini's manifests combine both similarities and distinct features in relation to the way in which they should act and the strategies that should be implemented for the installation of an Islamic State, governed by Islamic law. The historical context facilitates knowledge as it defines the framework in which a certain movement evolved. This work is presenting the realities of Egypt and Iran, respectively, but also the way in which fundamentalist interpretations shaped the state construction of these states.
Key words
Islam; radicalization; fundamentalism; religion; state; jihad; purity.
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BLUE OCEAN - NECESSARY BUT NOT ENOUGH

MAXIM, Lucian Gabriel, Ec. M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
We are facing a major change, even if there are not many who accept this fact and try to cling to the last powers of this competitive market and it must be accepted that using the same methods can not continue, information flows change, that the one who has the vision on researching, finding and implementing the right solutions will survive and that if you wait for the situation to resolve itself you will fail in the face of this process of globalization and geo-modernization. It must be understood that in reality things do not remain never on the spot. They are constantly evolving. Operations are improving, markets are expanding, and players are coming and going. History shows us our underestimated ability to innovate continuously. A competitive market, called the Red Ocean, will always exist and will always be a reality of economic life. But as supply outstrips demand in more and more fields, competition for some of the shrinking markets, while necessary, will not be enough to sustain high performance. Companies need to see beyond the competition. To make new profits and growth opportunities, you need to create blue oceans.
Key words
blue ocean; innovation, globalization; change; market; evolution; red ocean; profit.
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MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS OF MODERN MILITARY TRANSPORT AIRPLANES

MICU, Bogdan-Mihai M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
An airplane is a fixed-wing aircraft which is propelled forward in presence of thrust which is developed by a jet engine, rocket engine or a propeller. The main categories of airplanes are military, transportation of people and goods, research or recreation. A multi-criteria analysis is comprehensive in order to discover the best military transport aircraft from the ones I proposed to study, all the quatitative and qualitative criterions being chosen objectively, the main criterions being relevant and important for the aircraft. The purpose for a multi-criteria analysis is to discover the best quality-price relation for any of the aircraft, making it a trusted method in any acquisition process. To this end, an overview of the features characteristic of four such airplanes is provided. Based on that, a number of assessment criteria and their weighing are established in order to create an assessment matrix and a hierarchy of the four transport airplanes.
Key words
airplanes; aircraft; military; transport; Wright; flight; Lockheed; criterion.
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THE ROLE OF THE PRIVATE MILITARY COMPANIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY BATTLE SPACE

MIHALCEA Petru, Lecturer, PhD candidate*
ȘESTACOV Andrei, Lecturer, PhD candidate*


*Military Academy of the Armed Forces “Alexandru cel Bun”
Abstract
Modern battle space is in a permanent transformation due to social, economic, scientific and technological evolution. These aspects mainly changed the aproach of conducting military operations and diversified the actors on the battle space. The article argues how PMC changes the modern way of conducting military operations and threats faced by states as a legal manager of armed violence. Such transformation was particularly highlighted by the fall of the Iron Curten when the mass armies compriesed by conscripts became ineficient. This factor generate condition for a new actor on the security field – private military companies, that tend to substitute some of the state responsabilities on the war monopol and bussines.
Key words
private military company, military operation, battle space, security.
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE – HUMINT’S SMART FRIEND IN 2040

MUNTEANU Lucian, Engineer*

*NATO HUMINT Centre of Excellence, Concept Development & Experimentation , ORADEA, ROMANIA
Abstract
We are in the year 2040, when the artificial intelligence powered systems represent the weapons of choice in military conflicts. The confrontations are less visible in physical environment, but the amount of related information is much more extensive and generated by both humans and machines. The pace of operations is beyond the human ability to absorb, interpret and make complex decisions. HUMINT has adapted by calling a “smart friend” in support. This friend is nobody else than Artificial Intelligence – AI. When your interlocutor could be an AI-assisted human being or even an independent AI system, it is mandatory to use the “smart friend” to enhance HUMINT capacity to engage with such counterpart. This scenario-based article emphasizes the use of AI-powered HUMINT abilities to sense, reason, engage and learn to obtain information in order to identify the enemy in a future, technologically saturated, operational environment.
Disclaimer: This paper expresses the views, interpretations, and independent position of the author. It should not be regarded as an official document, nor expressing formal opinions or policies, of NATO or the NATO HUMINT Centre of Excellence.
Key words
HUMINT; human; intelligence; artificial; military; technology; source; engage; learn.
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ASPECTS RELATED TO THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE ROMANIAN ARMY

NICOARĂ Gabriela-Florina, Ph.D candidate*
PINZARIU Sorin Gheorghe, Ph.D**


*”Carol I” National Defence University, Bucharest, Romania
**”Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract
The integrated approach of human resources management in the Romanian military system has become one of the essential preconditions of proper achievement of the objectives of the military organization. The Romanian Army, by assuming its fundamental mission, commits to adopt a judicious constructive attitude towards the resources made available. Bearing in mind the current context that is decisively influenced by a security environment characterized by unprecedented instability, human resources need to be addressed through an integrated management which should be described not only by functional adaptability but also by organizational resilience. Thus, the intention of the present article is to highlight, from an integrated perspective, the activities of the military human resources field emphasizing the vital components as well as the relationships needed to be created and sustained among them.
Key words
human resources; integrated management.
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INFORMATIONAL RESOURCES UNDER THE THREAT OF CYBER WARFARE

OANCEA Constantin-Bogdan, M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
This paper wants to show the vulnerabilities to which, the information resources of today's society are subjected. As technology has progressed at an alarming rate and technology dependence has become increasingly acute, today's society is at increased risk of informational regress. The main threat is cyber warfare, which has spread since the beginning of the 21st century. Cyber warfare can affect all branches of information resource management, from espionage and stealing personal data for use in illegal activities to damaging the critical infrastructure of a state. An unstoppable cyber-attack in time can bring the destruction of the information resources but also can bring the world back to the stage of the Middle Ages.
Key words
informational regress; cyber warfare; espionage; cyber-attack.
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COMMUNICATION AND LEADERSHIP. PITFALLS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION

POPA Brîndușa Maria, PhD, University Lecturer*
CONSTANTINESCU Maria, PhD, Assistant Professor*
DUMITRACHE Vlad Ionuț, PhD, Assistant Professor*


*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies – NATO Partnership Training and Education Centre, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Communication is not limited to the process of giving or receiving dispositions, commands, directives it includes the transfer of knowledge and information which is power, soft power, and based on this transfer the accomplishment of commands and directives takes place. And consequently, the objectives are achieved. Actually, according to Johnson and Putnam organizational communication is the process by which organizing is being done and not something that occurs secondarily in an organization. The amount of information that circulates inside the organization is a means of power and control. Organizations are places of contradiction and struggle between and among various interests and forces in order to obtain and impose a position of power which is mandatory for achieving an objective. However, such power is not simple to gain because an organization is a large system made up of smaller systems or subsystems.
Key words
communication, information, management, objectives, strategic ambiguity, organization.
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COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS – MODERN STRUCTURES, EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGIES

POPA Cezar, Ph.D candidate*

*Mountain Warfare Training Centre “Bucegi” Predeal, Doctoral school, ”Carol I” National Defence University, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The command and control systems are constantly adapting, resizing and developing relating to the technological evolution and to the changes which happened in the physiognomy of military operations. In this context, the command and control systems become more complex and efficient, both through the quality of the military command personnel and command and control systems architecture, which integrates and interconnects high-performance equipment and means.
Key words
the command and control systems; variable geometry; capabilities; technology; cognitive computing.
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OPTIMIZATION OF RADIO COMMUNICATION FOR PREVENTING HUMAN ERRORS IN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE

ROȘIORU Constantin, M.A. student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
This paper presents the effects of perturbing factors on the pilot’s flight performance. The human being is the most flexible, adaptable and valuable part of an organization, but also the most vulnerable one to influences affecting performance. An important role in preventing human error is the involvement of visual and auditory senses in making a decision. Behavior and human performance are regarded as being the cause of most accidents. Using a good example, we have demonstrated that human error can occur at the level of radio communications between the pilot and the air traffic control structures, especially because of the misunderstanding of the transmitted message. The focus of the current study is represented by the importance of engaging the visual sense in messages transmission between the pilot and the air controllers. At the end of this paper, we have formulated an alternative approach to reduce the risk of transmitting and misunderstanding messages between these two cooperating structures. In this sense, optimizing radio communication by stimulating both visual and acoustic analyzers is a solution.
Key words
human factor, human error, human performances, optimization of radio communication.
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THE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES WITHIN THE MILITARY ORGANIZATION: AN OVERVIEW

SIMA Nicolae, MA student*

*Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies (DRESMARA)/ Brașov/ Romania
Abstract
In the research paper I will use the methods of identification, analysis and formulation of data on the evolution and development of human resources within the military organization. The investigation is related to aspects of human resources management in the Romanian Army, regarding the recruitment, selection, professional training and evolution in the military career. A significant role in the management of human resources in the military organization is the development of a modern management system, able to ensure the maintenance of the competitiveness of the military institution on the labor market, increasing the development of personnel quality for specific missions. The management of human resources in the military organization is highlighted by the recruitment and selection activities, which must be carried out through a strategic and objective method. Equally important are the preparation and improvement of human resources, which are based on the evolution of methods to improve knowledge, an evolution necessary in the organization to increase performance. Human resources in the military organization have the role of ensuring the achievement of its objectives, highlighting the other resources through their rational use, and human resources management represents the totality of activities undertaken by the army leadership, in order to ensure optimal use of military personnel.
Key words
human resources; recruitment; selection; professional training; evolution in the military career; military organization.
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AN OVERVIEW OF DEFENSE TRANSFORMATION FOR FUTURE FROM A MANPOWER AND PERSONNEL PERSPECTIVE

SĂVUȚ Sorin*

*Human Resource Management Directorate, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to place armed forces transformation into the context of defense transformation. As such, it will focus on describing, sometimes using the exact words, the approaches taken by the United States of America, United Kingdom and Romania towards adapting to the current and future security environment. Thus, it claims no originality its sole focus being that of allowing the reader to make an implicit comparison between various perspectives on transformation.
Key words
defense planning transformation, manpower, personnel.
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CYBER SECURITY - EVOLUTION AND OPPORTUNITIES

ȘESTACOV Andrei, Lecturer, PhD candidate*
MIHALCEA Petru, Lecturer, PhD candidate*


*Military Academy of the Armed Forces “Alexandru cel Bun”
Abstract
The research is designed to protect data and security of the organization as well as to ensure the confidentiality of the employees and partners in the context of a dynamic information environment prone to large-scale cyber-attacks in which cybercriminals are using increasingly advanced methods to implement attack vectors that are undetectable and difficult to neutralize.
Whether we are talking about large or small companies, public institutions and government agencies, this study provides with a series of recommendations on the secure use of social networks, as well as a minimum set of measures needed to prevent cyber-attacks, in order to reduce the damage caused in case of attacks. At the same time, it will examine the best practices in the online environment, effectively analyze the privacy settings of mobile devices and present some top tips for the secure use of social networks.
The research conducted in this study complied with the following minimum set of measures in order to prevent cyber-attacks, but also to reduce the damage caused in the event of attacks.
Key words
cyber security, attacks, prevention and detection of intrusions, DoS, DDoS, e-mail passwords, tools.
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PARTICULARITIES OF ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE AS AN INFORMATION RESOURCE IN THE MATRIX OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

UNGUREANU Gabriel Traian, PhD Student*

*”Mihai Viteazul” National Intelligence Academy, Doctoral School, Intelligence and National Security, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
In this article we reveal how the economic intelligence system fits into the matrix of the national intelligence system. At the beginning of this research we will identify the key areas from which is collected the necessary information when drafting the state macro-strategy, indicating which areas are likely to provide information that can be also analysed in an economic perspective. Further, based on these key areas, we will analyse the weighting of economic intelligence in the state intelligence matrix. Then, we will analyse how the economic intelligence system is embedded in the national intelligence ecosystem and, using the intelligence cycle as a reference, we will describe the intelligence process in terms of its economic dimension.
Key words
Economic Intelligence (EI); EI Process; EI System; Key Collection Areas; National Intelligence Matrix; EI Cycle.
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THE ANALYSIS OF THE VULNERABILITIES FOR THE SECURITY

ZBRANCA Alexandra*

*MA student atRegional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies – NATO Partnership Training and Education Centre, Brasov, Romania
Abstract
Some of the current security risks differ fundamentally from those at the end of the last century. Of course, some risks have the capacity to transcend history (war, epidemic risks, etc.), but they also change their relevance with the evolution of society. Action by the international community is constantly adapting to new realities. The challenges are not only about military conflicts between states, but are much more complex in nature. One of the causes of the change in the paradigm of risks is the emergence of non-state actors alongside state actors. When viewed systemically, the concepts under analysis are always in a well-defined report. During their coexistence, when security forecasts do not see the elimination of one too soon, risks, threats and vulnerabilities can operate in accordance with the principles of zero-sum gaming. Thus, national security can be ensured either by reducing vulnerabilities or by preventing threats or mitigating risks. It determines the orientation of the national security strategy that can focus inward, trying to reduce the state's vulnerabilities, or outward, by allocating forces and means to act directly or not on the sources of risk.
Key words
risk, threat; vulnerability; global security; regional security; national security.
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COUNTERPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR AND ITS MANIFESTATION IN MANAGEMENT

ZERBEȘ Mihai Victor, Lecturer PhD, Eng.*
BADEA Dorel, Assoc. Prof. PhD, Eng.**
NEAMU Vasilica Silvia, Psychologist ***
VIȘAN Anca Elena, PhD candidate ****
GIUREA Ramona, PhD*


*“Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania
**”NicolaeBălcescu” Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, Romania
*** AsociațiaConexiuni Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania
**** Harting Romania Manufacturing SCS, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract
Counterproductive behaviors (CB) have two organizational and interpersonal dimensions that can generate problems with negative effects for both the company and the employees. Consequently, they are a combination of personal and organizational factors.This article presents an analysis of the literature on organizational behavior regarding CB and its role in achieving performance and certain conclusions and perspectives for organizational managers.
Key words
organizational behavior; human resources; performance.
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STUDY OF THE RELIABILITY OF THE INTEGRATED QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WITHIN THE ORGANISATION

ZERBEȘ, Mihai Victor, Lecturer PhD, Eng.*
BADEA, Dorel, Assoc. Prof. PhD, Eng.**
OLTEANU, Alexandru PhD candidate ***
VIȘAN, Anca Elena PhD candidate ****
GIUREA Ramona, PhD*


*“Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Engineering, Sibiu, Romania
**”Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy, Sibiu, Romania
*** S C Thyssenkrupp Bilstein SA, Sibiu, Romania
**** Harting Romania Manufacturing SCS, Sibiu, Romania
Abstract
In this paper, the authors aim to conduct a study on the development and implementation of a model for calculating the performance of the integrated management system within an organization in the field of civil engineering. The first part describes the integrated management system and how to monitor its performance. The methodology involved conducting an internal audit and a comparative analysis of each component based on the basic (internationally recognized) benchmarks of this integrated system, in order to assess the performance of the integrated management system.
Key words
management; system model; organisation.
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