erori: Defense Resources Management in the 21st century

12th edition of the International Scientific Conference

Defense Resources Management in the 21st Century


                 

                 


Pdf Version;

NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY „CAROL I”
REGIONAL DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT STUDIES



DEFENSE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY


International Scientific Conference organized by the Regional Department of Defense Resources Management Studies

November 9th - 10th 2017, Braşov

NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY "CAROL I"
PUBLISHING HOUSE
BRASOV, 2017


Coordinators:
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD
  • Junior Lecturer Vlad DUMITRACHE, PhD
Moderators:
  • Professor Cezar VASILESCU, PhD, eng.
  • Professor Ileana TACHE, PhD
  • Asociate Professor Dorel BADEA, PhD
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD
  • Junior Lecturer Vlad Ionuț DUMITRACHE, PhD
  • Liliana FILIP, PhD Candidate
Editor:
  • Lecturer Brînduşa Maria POPA, PhD.
ISSN: 2248 - 2245 (CD-ROM)
ISSN: 2248 - 2385 (online)
Scientific Committee:

  • Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU
  • Teodor FRUNZETI
  • Emilian DOBRESCU
  • Ghiță BÂRSAN
  • Vasile BUCINSCHI
  • Mary S. McCULLY
  • Fahri ERENEL
  • Mustafa Kemal TOPCU
  • William BARTLETT
  • Eleftherios THALASSINOS
  • Jean-Pierre ALLEGRET
  • Elzbieta Jadwiga SRYMASISKA
  • Agnieszka BRELIK
  • Ramona RUPEIKA – APOGA
  • Ebru CAYMAZ
  • Vladan HOLCNER
  • Ion ROCEANU
  • Stelian PÂNZARU
  • Virgil ENE-VOICULESCU
  • Vasile CĂRUŢAŞU
  • Liviu FILIP
  • Edith Mihaela DOBRESCU
  • Mărioara PATEȘAN
  • Anca DINICU
  • Ioan Gabriel POPA
  • Dumitru IANCU
  • Luminița GIURGIU
  • Daniel-Sorin CONSTANTIN
  • Dănuț-Eugeniu MOȘTEANU
  • Aurelian RAȚIU
  • Lucian ISPAS
  • Ilie PĂUN
  • Cezar VASILESCU
  • Florin Eduard GROSARU
  • Maria CONSTANTINESCU
  • Aura CODREANU
  • Brînduşa Maria POPA
  • Cristina ANTONOAIE
  • Vlad DUMITRACHE
Contents:
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING AND EVALUATION SYSTEM IN US / ROMANIA

AMARIE Radu

Ministry of National Defence
Abstract
The defense resources management emerged as a topic of interest for the defense sector, no more than five decades ago, when some western countries introduced this concept in addressing such issues as allocating financial and human resources. Moreover, this mechanism provides the necessary tools to plan, organize, lead and control those segments and activities of the defense organization and may contribute to maximising the operational performance of armed forces. There is no universally agreed definition of defense management, but it simply encapsulates the idea that defense organisations need to turn the defense policies into practice, and in doing so, to develop appropriate and sustainable planning mechanisms, support systems and infrastructure. Over time and in different nations, managerial systems were introduced and tested for their relevance in terms of planning, efficiency and accountability. Such a system, developed specifically for public sectors or borrowed from the business practices is Planning, Programming, Budgeting System (PPBS).
Pdf Version
EU’s ECONOMIC SECURITY AND THE CHANGING INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

Andruseac Gabriel-Ciprian

Romanian MoD / Doctoral School of Economics and Business Administration, “AlexandruIoanCuza” University of Iasi, Romania

Maha Liviu-George

Reasearch Centre in International Economic Relations and European Studies, “AlexandruIoanCuza” University of Iasi, Romania
Abstract
The international environment has changed dramatically during the last few years, and many events have influenced the military, economic, social and political dimensions of the entire world. The wars in Syria and Ukraine, the refugee crisis, the rise of terrorist organizations in Europe, Brexit, Russia’s interference in US domestic elections and, last but not least, Donald Trump’s election in USA are some of the events that have shaped the new international stage. The economy is the main pillar of the EU’s development and the economic security is one aspect that needs immediate attention from the EU’s leadership. The challenges to the EU’s economic security are more present than ever and they are not only external but also internal. The paper aims to analyze the relationship between the recent changes of the international environment and EU’s economic security and the perspectives of EU’s economic security facing the new challenges and opportunities.
Pdf Version
STRATEGIC PLANNING – AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN STRATEGIC PLANNING DOCUMENTS AND THEIR RELEVANCE IN THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENT (CASE STUDY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA)

ANTON Tatiana

Ministry of Defence /Defence Policy and Defence Planning Directorate / Chisinau / Republic of Moldova
Abstract
This paper is presenting an analysis and evaluation of the Republic of Moldova strategic documents development in the defense and security area, starting from the early creating of its statehood till present times. The main focus of attention is given to the thorough analysis of current documents, and namely the National Security Strategy, the National Defense Strategy and the Military Strategy, which were recently nominated by law as a framework strategic planning documents, as well as providing their role, importance and relevance for the state. At the end of the paper the author is driving conclusions with regards to “lessons learned” in development process and provides some recommendations to better organize the process and improve documents implementation.
Pdf Version
STRATEGIC PLANNING – AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN STRATEGIC PLANNING DOCUMENTS AND THEIR RELEVANCE IN THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENT (CASE STUDY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA)
Abstract
This paper is presenting an analysis and evaluation of the Republic of Moldova strategic documents development in the defense and security area, starting from the early creating of its statehood till present times. The main focus of attention is given to the thorough analysis of current documents, and namely the National Security Strategy, the National Defense Strategy and the Military Strategy, which were recently nominated by law as a framework strategic planning documents, as well as providing their role, importance and relevance for the state. At the end of the paper the author is driving conclusions with regards to “lessons learned” in development process and provides some recommendations to better organize the process and improve documents implementation.
Pdf Version
HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND THE LABOUR MARKET IN ROMANIA

RIMBU Gabriela

“Lucian Blaga” University/ Sibiu/ Romania

Băcilă Marinela Lidia

“Lucian Blaga” University/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
Over the last years, the European Union aimed its social policies to develop the human capital, meaning to equip its citizens with competences needed to adapt to the current economic situation in Europe, described by fast-changing technology and labour market. The goal of this paper is to analyse the social policies that target the development of human capital at the European Union level, as well as the measures that Romania implemented to manage their human capital. The paper also evaluates the results of the human capital development measures and their impact on the labour market in Romania in 2007-2016 period, using indicators associated to education, demography, employment, unemployment, income and labour productivity. Our analysis reveals that since Romania had become a member state of the European Union, the interest in the human capital development has increased, but Romania is making small progress. The implemented measures and policies had limited impact, and in some cases where not clear. To ensure a better management of the Romanian human capital, new approaches and innovative social policies are required.
Pdf Version
THE USE OF EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS IN MANAGING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENT ARCHITECTURES - FROM OPTION TO NEED

BADEA Dorel

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

MĂNESCU Gabriel

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

SABĂU Florin

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
In the context of increasing the frequency of different types of disasters or natural disasters, the idea of operationalizing early warning systems, which ultimately reduces the consequences on society in general and especially on those areas regulated as critical to the functionality and continuity of essential services to the population. Some topical directions of investigation of the subject are highlighted in the article, the main research method being conceptual modeling.
Pdf Version
CURRENT PROBLEMS OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF ROAD TRANSPORT

BÂRSAN Ghiță

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

BADEA Dorel

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

COMAN Marian

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
The rethinking of the importance and managerial process of transport infrastructures has become more than a imperative today, the quantity of elaborations made at EU level especially in the domain of applied research being also an indicator in this respect. It can not be said that there is a trend of convergence of certain points of view on the issues specific to the critical road transport infrastructures, while at the same time displaying under the imperative of the emergence of increasingly more sophisticated cyber technologies and the need for complex interdisciplinary subjects to be clarified in the following period of time. In this framework, terms such as security, protection, governance and architectures are also brought to attention, and their complementary character is emphasized, the purpose being on focusing on advanced technologies that will provide robustness in researching viable solutions specific to this field of activity.
Pdf Version
FAKE NEWS AND THEIR IMPACT ON MILITARY OPERATIONS

BĂLAN Constantin

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
Fake news is a new phenomenon that, along with the speed of mass communication nowadays, has an enormous potential to do harm. Be it propagated consciously or not, this reality is yet to be addressed at a sufficient scale to be minimized and then eventually, ignored. Its range is non-discriminatory as it affects a wide array of domains, from politics and military operations, to high-life and common people’s lives. It can influence elections up to the point that can decide the free choice of a countries’ leadership or significantly reduce the huge volume of resources invested in a military operation. However, people became more and more aware of the truthfulness of the news they’re consuming and tools and mechanisms to check the facts versus opinions are emerging but the society needs to have these instruments clearly defined, regulated and supported up to the point the fake news phenomenon becomes marginal and limited.
Pdf Version
THE ARMS TRADE DEVELOPMENT IN CONTEXT WITH ECONOMICS AND MILITARY ASPECTS OF SECURITY ENVIRONMENT

Boulaouad Jana

University of Defence / Department of Economics / Brno / Czech Republic
Abstract
The paper identifies and characterizes the military and economic aspects of the development of the security environment and then analyses their impact on the international trade with arms and military equipment during the period 1990–2015 on selected countries. The paper analyses the security environment impact to arms export to evaluated countries through selected military and economic indicators. The impacts of chosen military and economic indicators on arms trade flows was evaluated by statistical methods. The security environment was evaluated through selected indicators reflecting it on Pakistan and Turkey (one of mains recipients of United States and Great Britain). Indicators were processed through selected statistical methods in relation to accepted flows of weapons and military technology from major arms trade partners. The Statistical data show the relationship between accepted arms flows and military technology and the selected indicators. Based on the assessment the import of arms and military technology from the respective exporter showed a close correlation with a group of selected indicators which varied among individual exporters.
Pdf Version
ROMANIA’S DEFENCE POLICY POST-WARSAW

Brânda Oana-Elena

Titu Maiorescu University, Bucharest, Faculty of Social, Political and Humanistic Studies
Abstract
The Warsaw NATO Summit of 2016 represents a turn in NATO policy, focusing more on achieving tangible results and a more active involvement of the member countries. Apart from strengthening the military capabilities, the results of the Summit also signaled an enhanced cooperation with the European Union. In this regard, it is interesting to highlight the manner in which Romania’s decision-making process complied with the outcomes set by the Warsaw Summit, in light of the country’s membership within the two organizations and its particular role in the North-Atlantic alliance. The aim of this article is to perform an analysis of the steps taken by Romania in its foreign policy in order to identify a degree of compliance with post-Warsaw NATO prerequisites. Thus, the new Governance Programme shall be analyzed, together with the positions taken by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the National Defense Ministry. Statements of the major decision-makers after the Summit shall be used in order to create the framework of analysis, as well as the country’s stance taken due to the activation of the Deveselu base. The focus of the analysis shall be on the major elements established as threats and the efforts made in their countering by the habilitated institutions.
Pdf Version
EUROPEAN WIDER NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

BRĂNIȘTEANU Mihail

Land Forces Secondary English Training Centre, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Ever since its creation, in 1957, the European Union has been continuously extending, reaching its peak in 2016, when it had „engulfed” most of the Old Continent (28 countries). While the enlarged free-trade zones and the Arab Spring provided wide opportunities for EU to expand its Area of interest - the Wide Neighbourhood Policy (WNP), there are also considerable challenges which place a large question-mark on the future of the WNP and the future of EU itself. Some of the biggest challenges are: the increasingly-hostile Russia, the Brexit, the refugees’ crisis, various EU reconfiguration formulas, etc.
Pdf Version
THE NEED OF FLEXIBLE ADAPTATION TO THE CONTINUOUS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

HALMAGHI Elisabeta-Emilia

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

BUCĂŢA George

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
In business, the flexibility is the art of work and perform within, but also outside the rules, policies or paradigms. The flexibility and freedom are key parts of the organizational culture as more and more people tend to ask for these elements from employers in order to perform to the best of their abilities. Reshaping flexibility in times of organizational changes may be crucial for companies to gain a competitive advantage on the market they operate given the fierce competition.
Pdf Version
INTERNATIONALISATION - THE WAY TO BUILD UP A EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY

CĂRUȚAȘU Daniela

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
Internationalization can be achieved through the study programs carried out at the institution level, the projects involving the institution and other scientific, sporting, cultural and social activities that are organized within the institution. We can talk about internationalization „at home” and internationalization abroad, and from this point of view the institutions that consider the first option show maturity and profound understanding of the realities of the national, European and international higher education system. A program that is carried out at European level and facilitates the achievement of the institutional objectives of internationalization is the Erasmus+ Programme. It is a complex and useful program that can financially support any institutional objective related to internationalization, a program through which collaboration relationships with any higher education institution or company in the world and covering all fields of activity can be established. For the military higher education institutions in Europe there is another European program, namely the European Initiative for the Exchange of Young Officers. This is a program that, although not enjoying financial support, contributes to expanding and strengthening cooperation relations between military higher education institutions, to making educational curricula compatible and, in particular, to promoting military training modules that can be carried out jointly for cadets. The Implementation Group, through the 8 Development Lines it has in its composition, tries to identify the most appropriate ways to translate the above-mentioned objectives into practice. The study will reveal a number of aspects related to internationalization, the peculiarities that arise in the military higher education institutions and their exemplification at “Nicolae Bălcescu” Land Forces Academy in Sibiu.
Pdf Version
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LIFE CYCLE COST IN THE MILITARY ACQUISITIONS

CHERECHEȘ Sorin

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
Precise cost estimation of military equipment plays an essential role in all military acquisition plans. The best opportunities to achieve significant cost benefits occur during the early concept development and design phase of any project. The concept of the life cycle of an asset provides a framework to document and compare alternatives. The framework for using LCC as a tool throughout the Rmania MOD military aquisition phases exixts. Nevertheless the experience in major acquisition programme and LCC estimates is yet very young to transform the results and data colected into statistics.
Pdf Version
ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING SOLDIER’S COMBAT TRAINING

CIORAP Radu George

Faculty of Medical Bioengineering/ Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy/ Iași/ Romania

ANDRIȚOI Doru

Faculty of Medical Bioengineering/ Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy/ Iași/ Romania

CRĂCIUN Ioan

National Defence College / National Defence University ”Carol I” / Bucharest / Romania
Abstract
The paper presents a system used for monitoring physiological parameters of soldiers during combat training and analyzing the data for detecting the stress level. The proposed system includes two essential components: Soldier’s Health Monitoring Device-SHMD and Combat Medical Support Station (CMSS). The SHMD recording some vital signs like as: electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), plethysmografic waveform (PW), blood oxygenation (SpO2) and body temperature (T). The sensors for biosignals are fixed on a T-shirt that is wear by the soldier under military equipment, in contact with the skin. The CMSS receives all data through various communication channels (Internet, GSM, GPRS, WiFi, Bluetooth etc). This information from the soldier is processed and entered into a database. Also, the module includes a distribution platform based on a network protocol that facilitates the access of this data by the military doctor and also has an alarm function. A medical expert can analyze the data recorded for a specific subject and detect the level of stress during each training session. We analyzed the heart rate variability (HRV), extract from ECG signal and from plethysmografic waveform, during physical exercises and compare these results.
Pdf Version
SOLUTIONS FOR INCREASING THE SAFETY OF AERONAUTICAL ORGANIZATION

CIUICĂ Oliver

Romanian Air Force Academy, Aviation Department, Braşov, Romania

DRAGOMIR Cristian

Air Force Training School, Boboc, Romania

PĂDURARIU Dinu

Air Force Training School, Boboc, Romania
Abstract
At the level of aeronautical organizations there were recorded a series of concerns regarding safety during flight activities. Instead of traditional approach to finding out causes that generated events and the separate recording of events, nowadays, a systemic organizational approach is promoted for preventing, raising awareness, understanding and controlling hazard. The real challenge for leaders of aeronautical organizations is to develop professional initiatives toward performance and at the same time to improve safety level.
Pdf Version
ECONOMIC RISKS TO NATIONAL SECURITY

CONSTANTINESCU Petre Ciprian

Independent Researcher/ Romania
Abstract
The common interests tend to be stronger than the divergent interests of the participants in the globalization game. As a result, the risks to national security have moved slowly, but not irreversibly, from the military field into the economic area. States that have delayed entry into the game of globalization have technological and economic gaps that expose them to underdevelopment. For states that have accepted rules of the game, national welfare and security are directly related to how should be manage the opportunities and risks involved.
Pdf Version
ROBOTIC WARFARE, LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT, AND LAW OF ROBOTIC ARMED CONFLICT

CAYMAZ Ebru

Marmara University, Department of Organization and Management, Istanbul, Turkey

DEMİR Kadir Alpaslan

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Program Manager, Turkish Naval Research Center Command, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract
Robotic technology offers great benefits to humanity. However, one of the first uses of this technology is for war. We already have seen the actual use of armed unmanned aerial vehicles to destroy enemy targets in war zones. Some experts believe that robots will change the nature of wars. Even with the current artificial intelligence technology, it is possible to task a robot to kill a human without human intervention. There are many ethical issues surrounding robotic warfare. Current warfare ethics is shaped by the principles of Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). These principles are formed based on the experiences of earlier wars. These wars were fought only by humans. However, in the robotic warfare era, there are new types of combatants. Therefore, we may need a new set of principles for LOAC. Currently, there are international campaigns for a ban on Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS), in other words, killer robots. Some experts advocate regulating the use of military robots rather than calling for an international ban. In this study, we discuss the current developments regarding the call for a ban and the arguments for a regulation on killer robots. In addition, we introduce a set of principles to guide the development of a Law of Robotic Armed Conflict (LORAC).
Pdf Version
ISSUES IN INTEGRATING ROBOTS INTO ORGANIZATIONS

CAYMAZ Ebru

Marmara University, Department of Organization and Management, Istanbul, Turkey

DEMİR Kadir Alpaslan

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Program Manager, Turkish Naval Research Center Command, Istanbul, Turkey

ELÇİ Meral

Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey
Abstract
Robots among people are not science fiction anymore. Discussions have already started on how to integrate robots into various aspects of our lives. We use robots in factories for quite some time now. Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles are being used for both civilian and military purposes. Nowadays, smart transportation is one of the hottest research topics. Moreover, medical robots are showing promise. The scientific literature on humanoid robots and social robotics are building up. Currently, there are social humanoid robots available for purchase at affordable prices. Even though social robots are limited in their capabilities, they show prospect for various commercial, educational, and research purposes. We now envision organizations in which robots and humans collaborate. As artificial intelligence in robots becomes more capable, robots will assume roles, conduct various tasks and collaborate with people in organizations. In this study, we discuss various issues related to integrating robots into organizations.
Pdf Version
PROTECTING RESOURCES TRANSFER ACROSS NETWORK MODELS

Dimitriu Mihail

Centre for Financial and Monetary Research of Romanian Academy – Victor Slăvescu
Abstract
In the evolution of society, irrespective of the state of war or peace, the problem of transport of resources was solved with means, techniques, and instruments in accordance with the level of economic and social development. Currently, information support for this area creates new opportunities but also risks, especially for certain categories of resources. Our research aims to find an appropriate mechanism so that the transfer of resources from one entity to another, through specific transfer channels, is achieved without significant loss. In this regard, in order to find appropriate solutions and to make some useful proposals for microeconomic management, we used the network model.
Pdf Version
RELEVANCE OF WATER RESOURCE FOR THE NATIONAL SECURITY

Dinicu Anca

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
The “security” concept has become extremely current, being used in the most varied fields of activity and expressing a state which, in the Cold War era, corresponded only to the state and the international environment in which it operated. With the disappearance of the system based almost exclusively on military confrontation, the old concept of security has been enriched by its imprinting with elements specific to other fields of activity, thus responding theoretically to the incredible transformations from the internal or international security environment. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the Copenhagen School according to which security has five dimensions (military, economic, political, social, ecological), but also the United Nations Development Program which, through the 1994 Human Development Report, signalled the obtuseness of the concept of security, by ignoring the individual’s daily needs. This reconsideration of the security issue has given rise to a new perspective, that of human security. The concept of “water security”, which is at the heart of this research, has become more and more used today, thanks to the reconsideration of the importance of the water resource and its use as a political tool aimed at achieving the economic and military objectives of a state. Thus, the paper aims to analyze the concept of “water security” and to present its significance in practical terms, by highlighting some challenges that, affecting it, have consequences for the national security itself.
Pdf Version
RELIGIOUS FANATICISM IN ISLAM AND IN CHRISTIAN VERSUS RISKS TO THE NATIONAL SECURITY

DINULESCU Iulian

Doctoral School of the “Mihai Viteazul” National Intelligence Academy București, România
Abstract
At present, the attention of the international community has turned to religious violence, regardless of religious fanatics, religious terrorists or other forms of extreme manifestation of religiosity. The issue is not generated by the religious phenomenon or religiosity that such actors, such as the religious sects or cults, manifest, and the religious fanaticism of some of the members of such religious entities. In this type of situation, this phenomenon can not be prevented until it is truly understood from a religious point of view. That is, what motivates some individuals to adopt such behavior, and the characteristics of such religious fanatics, and how it generates risks to national security. In this article we will only address the religious fanaticism manifested by some followers of Christianity and Islam, for these are those that can have an impact at European level, and indirectly at the level of Romania. To this end, we will use a comparative analysis of elements of religious fanaticism between the two religions, with a particular emphasis on manipulating sacred texts that justify violent conduct
Pdf Version
TEN YEARS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PLANETARY ECONOMIC CRISIS

DOBRESCU Emilian

Professor PhD, Titular Member at Romanian Academy Scientist/ CS I at Institute for National Economy/ Romanian Academy

DOBRESCU Edith Mihaela

Dr. in economic, SR gradeIII at Institute of World Economy/Romanian Academy
Abstract
Ten years ago, the worst financial crisis broke out after 1929 . Bankers continued their usual business, but the shock wave continued to spread. The crisis has made the models of economic growth been outdated and has caused a massive discrediting of the political world. These two economic and political crises have added the ecological one, threatening the very existence of the planet
Pdf Version
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROMANIAN DEFENSE INDUSTRY FOLLOWING THE WALES SUMMIT- CASE STUDY- IAR BRASOV

DUMITRACHE Vlad

DRESMARA / National Defense University “Carol I”/ Brasov/Romania
Abstract
The Wales Summit has meant a leap forward for Defense Budgets in Member States. In accordance to decisions taken during the Summit member countries will allocate two percent from their GDP in order to increase Defense Expenditures in military aquisitions, building capabilities, being part of different military exercises with fellow NATO member states. These decisions mean a possible development of the defense industry of member states. It is the purpose of this paper to follow an example of the Romanian Defense Industry, namely IAR Brasov who has been developing military helicopters for almost 100 years. It is the aim of this paper to analyse how Romania s membership in NATO has impacted the economic evolution of IAR.
Pdf Version
MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY IN THE MILITARY SECTOR

Filip Călin

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
Approximately 80% of world trade currently travels by sea, representing around 93,000 merchant vessels, 1.25 million seafarers, and almost six billion tons of cargo. When appear some disturbing factors, that affect the transfer of goods and the free transit on sea routes for civilian ships involved in trading, disorders of all specific processes are inevitable, starting from the delays to financial losses, lack of confidence and not the least occurrence of critical conditions that can culminate in life lost. About maritime piracy it was written very much, there have been made statistics, but it has not managed so far to put all these documents in a white book of piracy. The data presented in this paper are the results of corroborating statements transmitted by NATO, EU and the organizations involved in analyzing this phenomenon.
Pdf Version
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, THE BASE FOR INITIATING A STRATEGIC ACQUISITION PROGRAM

FOSTEA Dan

Military Equipment and Technologies Research Agency / Bucharest / Romania
Abstract
Initiating a major acquisition program is a very sensitive process, not only because of the money involved but also because its role in defense planning. Correlating the mission’s needs with the system to be acquired requires a sum of very specific and detailed documents. Identifying different systems that are satisfying the beneficiary requirements is the first step in this process. Behind this activity is an extensive research and expertise that allow defining the technical requirements derived from the missions needs. The role played by the research and technologies organizations has to be very important in this stage. This papers presents the steps for initiating a major acquisitions program accentuating the importance of science and technology involved and analyses some scenarios in order to emphases the conclusions derived.
Pdf Version
ETHICS – CONCEPT AND APPLICABILITY IN SOCIAL WORK

GHEORGHIU Carmen Marina

National School of Political Studies and Public Administration, Management/Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
Understanding ethics is fundamental to us as individuals because a healthy ethics is the very essence of a civilized society. Ethics is the foundation on which all our relationships are built. It addresses how we behave towards entrepreneurs, employees, colleagues, clients, subordinates, suppliers, generally to the community we are in. Talking about ethics in the field of social assistance, politics, economy, at the organization level, is today fashionable, it is even a novelty. However, there is a clear lack of ethics in these areas. Ethical standards are often found among universal values. Speaking of universal values, we must admit that universality supposes first of all diversity. Living in society implies the necessity of the emergence and perpetuation of relations between its members. Although respect for ethical principles must govern the whole set of human interactions (family, business, friendship, etc.), in this analysis we only consider the ethical foundation of the relationships circumscribed to the specific environment of social assistance. Social work as a profession builds its system of values, starting from respecting the dignity and integrity of the human being and recognizing democracy as an essential requirement of social life. The main empirical data collection methods used in this paper are: observation and social documents analysis. Style research approach will be both qualitatively and quantitative perspective. Quantitative research will highlight the numerical measurements of specific aspects of the phenomena studied with the aim of testing causal hypotheses, whereas qualitative research paradigms will be based on a kind of postmodern ones. In this paper we present some of the theoretical considerations on the development of ethics in Romania and globally perspective. This paper aims to outline a picture of contemporary applicability of ethics through a general analysis and point some prospects regarding this subject.
Pdf Version
GREEN APPLICATIONS IN MILITARY LOGISTICS

CONSTANTINESCU Maria

DRESMARA / National Defense University “Carol I”/ Brasov/Romania

GÜNORAL Alper

Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Abstract
Among the threats to national security often not spoken about, or mentioned as an afterthought, are the threats and risks linked to environmental issues. This study assumes that, in the future, the worst threat will be environmental, either deriving from scarce resources such as water, energy dependence or even pollution. Most of the pollution around the world is being caused by logistic transportation. This study focuses on what is being done and can be done with military logistics in order to help fighting against this future threat.
Pdf Version
COMMUNICATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COHESION IN THE MILITARY

RELU Ioana Mihail

RFTC / Craiova / Romania
Abstract
The study of communication and cohesion within the military organization has arisen from the normal need to achieve performance in fulfilling the mission. An efficient group communication essentially contributes to increase the degree of group cohesion and the performance of military organization. Social scientists most often view cohesion as both a group characteristic and as a determinant of performance. Cohesion has not only a positive impact on group morale, it can help to improve functioning and performance by buffering the effects generated by high-stress situations. Interpersonal relationships, work in communication group and its cohesion would be unimaginable in the absence of communication. The importance of feedback for satisfactory communication is remarkable. Studies on non-formal groups show that more than half of the communication that takes place within them is a form or another of feedback or response. As expected, in formal organizations, where communication is task-oriented and has a vertical character, feedback is much lower than in non-formal organizations. Closing the circuit between sender and receiver (feedback) increases fairness, confidence, and reduces doubt and hostility in the relationship between them. Efficient communication and strong cohesion within the military organization are two essential conditions that a military organization must complete to fulfill the organization's objectives at the highest performance standards.
Pdf Version
Towards a Romanian economic model through economic intelligence

IVAN Loredana

"Mihai Viteazul" National Intelligence Academy, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
In a world marked by an increasingly fierce battle for obtaining and capitalizing on various competitive advantages, states are interested in designing and implementing strategies that adequately define their directions for action on development on principles of sustainability, balance and competitiveness. In the era of globalization, the world economy is marked by a strong increase in global competition, which has led Thomas L. Friedmann to write in his work "The Earth Is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century" that the playing field of the world competition has leveled out, becoming flat. Globalization brings effects to the world economy through a number of driving forces: the dismantling of trade barriers, the emergence of new industrialized countries, technical and technological innovation.. In this way, Romania has to rapidly adapt to the new economic and social realities and to choose for one or another of the economic models, especially because repeated attempts in the last 30 years have not been successful.
Pdf Version
BUILDING POLISH DEFENCE CAPABILITIES IN THE LIGHT OF STRATEGIC DEFENCE REVIEW OF 2016

Kośmider Tomasz

Director of the State Security Institute War Studies University /Warsaw
Abstract
Poland, like every state, needs conclusions and recommendations of the state security environment. It’s composed not only of factors influencing national defence, but also other aspects. It’s very important for comprehensive look at existing defence capabilities. Strategic Defence Review is a fundamental mechanism in the Republic of Poland for verifying the strategies of actions, their results, ways of adaptation to changing conditions and needs. Strategic Defence Review, initiated in July 2016, is for Polish State, especially Armed Forces, a recommendations of the current and future challenges. Similar processes had been conducted within the Ministry of National Defence on two previous occasions
Pdf Version
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AS A PROGRAM OF THE ROMANIAN MINISTRY OF NATIONAL DEFENCE

Lăzăroaie Claudiu

Scientific Research Center for CBRN Defense and Ecology/ Bucharest/ Romania
Abstract
Research and development discover solutions and creates knowledge. Security environment, policies and strategies were analysed in the paper, in order to identify factors that affect military R&D. The last five years of R&D Sectoral Plan were analysed in a thorough study, analysing also key players and mechanisms for financing the Romanian military R&D.
Pdf Version
NATIONAL DEFENSE PLANNING CHALLENGES DURING ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

LEPĂDATU Laurențiu

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
Romanian economy is linked with worldwide economies, thus meaning that the international financial crisis affected also Romania. These reflected on GDP which by extent reflected also upon figures allocated to programs, which in turn had a major impact upon defence planning. We have to admit the transcendence of the good and bad things of the global economy to the individual economies, Romania not being an exception. At that time Romania was engaged in the process of the European integration, one dimension of it being the financial one, meaning that it cannot be secluded from the crisis impact. With a fully current account liberalized, convertibility and high openness of the economy towards world economy, in terms of foreign trade, during a crisis with such a geographical extension, there is no doubt that some well-known vulnerabilities are perceived strongly by investors and analysts. A balanced approach of internal factors which can be under the pressure of the transmission channels bringing external shocks is more appropriate for the judgment of the possible domestic outcomes of the present crisis, either in financial field or economic one.
Pdf Version
THE ROMANIAN DEFENSE INDUSTRY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW GEOSTRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT

Maha Liviu-George

Reasearch Centre in International Economic Relations and European Studies, “AlexandruIoanCuza” University of Iasi, Romania

PRALEA Spiridon

Reasearch Centre in International Economic Relations and European Studies, “AlexandruIoanCuza” University of Iasi, Romania

IONESCU Ionuț-Bogdan

Doctoral School of Economics and Business Administration, „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University/ Iași/ Romania
Abstract
The events that took place in the world during the last decade have influenced, beyond any doubt, the geostrategic environment in ways that urged states and international organizations to reconsider their strategies and priorities. Some of the most important events can be split up in the following categories: military conflicts (the wars in Irak, Afghanistan, Siria and Ukraine), the rise of powerful terrorist organizations (Daesh, Al Qaeda or the Talibans), the migration phenomenon and, last but not least, the political changes (the military coup in Turkey, Donald Trump’s election in USA, NATO’s transformation process and Brexit). All these events, and especially their consequences on security, have made governments worldwide to search for solutions. One aspect that needs immediate attention is the defense industry and its influence on security. This is also true for Romania, especially now, when our country is part of the most powerful organizations in the world, NATO and EU. Thus, the Romanian defense industry, even if it used to be one of the most developed in the world during the ’80s, must keep up with the modern warfare technologies and provide the desired interoperability standards with the other NATO partners. Our country has made consistent efforts to reach this goal but it still has a long road ahead. The aim of this article is to analyze the present state of the Romanian defense industry, in the context of our national goal to become an equal partner to our allies, and what measures will make this endeavor achievable. Moving ahead, and linking the defense industry with the geostrategic environment, it is clear that the political conditions are now favorable to develop this part of the national industry. Taking into account the engagement of all NATO members to allocate 2% of their gross domestic product to the defense sector, which was unanimously adopted at the NATO Summit in Brussels on the 25th of May 2017, we consider that this is the chance for Romania to prove, once again, that it can develop its defense industry at the standards required by the new geostrategic environment.
Pdf Version
LAND PURCHASING BY FOREIGN ENTITIES - A PROBLEM OF NATIONAL SECURITY

Mancia Mircea Sebastian

University of Oradea/Faculty of Construction, Cadastre and Architecture/Departament of Cadastre and Architecture/Oradea/România

Mancia Aurora

University of Oradea/Faculty of Construction, Cadastre and Architecture/Departament of Cadastre and Architecture/Oradea/România
Abstract
Sustainable development in the geostrategic context of global sustainable development in the 21st century means conserving land, water and the entire heritage, exploiting natural resources in such a way as to meet the needs of present and future generations. Agricultural land represents for Romania one of the most valuable resources for ensuring alimentary security and independence, Romania's agricultural land being among the most fertile in Europe. That is why they are a constant attraction for foreign investors. According to the latest data published by the specialty forums of the European Union, approx. 30% of agricultural land belongs to foreign firms from Europea Union and 10% to non-U.E citizens and companies.
Pdf Version
CAPABILITIES BASED PLANNING PROCESS CORRELATION WITH THE NATIONAL DEFENSE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

MELINTE Dorel

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
Many of our development programs are hopelessly out of date — as are many armies. The difference is that armies all over the world are running to surprise the reality of the third millennium. Present-day wars are done to control the resources as the past-days wars had. Military structures depend on multidimensional resources: man-power, materials, spare parts, money and may not be able to come out with countervailing initiatives for all these multiple resources. That is why structures should move through the principle of criticality and principle of scarcity in the resources management. Critical resources are those the organization must have to function. A credit holder may adopt various countervailing strategies—it may associate with more suppliers, or integrate vertically or horizontally.
Pdf Version
EUROPEAN UNION - EXTERNAL ACTIONS THE COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY (CSDP)

Mitel-Laurențiu Alexandru

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
The European Union has implemented a ‘comprehensive approach’ in Somalia, a country now considered as the paradigm of a failed state, that tries to assess the situation from different angles and perspectives. Two fundamental parts of that approach are the fields of security and development. This essay sheds light on how these grounds interact in the frame of the ‘comprehensive approach’ by analysing to what extent the European Union development aid contributes to enhance security in the country. In order to do so, this work studies the nature of the European Union ‘comprehensive approach’ and the specific programmes that are implemented in the Horn of Africa region and Western Indian Ocean.
Pdf Version
MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES AND STOCK EXCHANGE RETURNS

NIAZI Muhammad Khurram Shehzad

Pakistan Armed Forces

Kamran Mahmood

Budget Directorate/ General Headquarters/ Pakistan Armed Forces, Rawalpindi

Iqbal Nauman

Assistant Manager Purchase Askari Cement Ltd/ Army Welfare Trust Plaza/ Rawalpindi/ Pakistan
Abstract
In this study, made an endeavor to find out the dynamic co-relation among Stock Exchange return and Macroeconomic variables i.e. ER (exchange rate), IR (Interest rate), IP (industrial production), M2 (Money Supply)and Inf (Inflation) by applying monthly data from 1st June 2000 to 30th May 2017. The data have been analysed by applying a Granger causality, coupled with a multivariate cointegration Juselius and Johansen which reflected a long-term relationship among the Stock Exchange Return and selected macroeconomic variables. Denial of the null hypothesis at 5% shows that there occurs unidirectional Granger Causality Test (GCT) among the ER and M2 at the 5% level. There is no other variable exist which are unidirectional GCT. t statistic of ECM is less than 1.96 thus indicating that there is no short term disequilibrium exists between ER, IR, IP, M2, Inf and equity market return. The question of modification, therefore does not exist. In case of Variance decomposition analysis the selected macroeconomic variables shocks are not significant cause of volatility for stock returns. The role of macroeconomic variables to the stock exchange returns ranges from 0 to 3 % over different time lags. Correspondingly, the VECM also approve the non-presence of a short-term co-relation between variables. On the other side, the trace test shows the presence of four cointegrating equations and Maximum eigen value also approves the presence of two cointegrating equations at 5%. The result therefore provides facts of a long-term co-relation among macroeconomic variables and stock returns. It merits that macroeconomic variables be measured as a vital factor in determining stock market movements.
Pdf Version
ECONOMIC GROWTH IN RELATION TO DEFENCE EXPENDITURE, EXTERNAL DEBT AND FOREIGN AID (A CASE STUDY OF PAKISTAN)

NIAZI Muhammad Khurram Shehzad

Pakistan Armed Forces
Abstract
This study explores the relationship between Defence expenditure (DE), external debt (ED), economic growth (GDP), foreign Aid (AID) and Development (DEV) in Pakistan from 1960 to 2016. World Bank data base has been used for standardisation and acceptability. This research is a combination of multivariate cointegration and Granger causality analysis for DE, ED and GDP. However for trend analysis two additional variables i.e. AID and DEV have been added to the model, the results have been matched. Johansen and Juselius’ multivariate cointegration analysis and trend analysis indicate the presence of a long-term relationship between the DE, ED and GDP. All variables have strong positive relationship. Variance decomposition analysis suggests that the GDP is positively affected by DE and ED, however trend analysis indicates strong but negative relationship of ED with DE and GDP both. Other two variables i.e. AID and DEV do not have relationship with DE, ED and GDP, however trend analysis indicates a weak positive and long term relationship between the two. The trend analysis suggests that after 2030 ED is likely to be more than GDP and DE, therefore policy makers may be aware of this eventuality and look for a long term economic policy and adoption of PPBES (Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Evaluation System) for long term policy planning. The system may be studied in detail to guard against occurrence of any such eventuality. Moreover due diligence/ caution be exercised while negotiating any long term external loans, as it has a direct bearing the economic outlook by 2030.
Pdf Version
CRITERIA FOR A QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCES AVAILABLE ON THE INTERNET

PETRE Răzvan

Ministry of National Defence, Romania
Abstract
The benefits of the Internet as information resource clearly outweigh its drawbacks, but an appropriate quality assessment method for data is necessary to draw valid conclusions. Applying evaluation criteria for assessing quality web resources is considered an appropriate method to ensure that electronic information be effectively selected. Different categorization methods are used to group evaluation criteria. Criteria are organized in broad items, such as scope, content, graphic and multimedia design, context, etc. Each of these items has its own specific indicators to be taken into account. This is confirmed by the literature on assessment of resources over the Internet, as well as by the various practices adopted all over the world in research and business environments.
Pdf Version
E-LEARNING AND THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIETY

POPA Brindusa

DRESMARA / National Defense University “Carol I”/ Brasov/Romania
Abstract
Knowledge-based society represents the society based on the human and intellectual capital, a society which develops in an ever changing economic and political dynamics. Knowledge-based society refers to societies rely on the knowledge of the citizens necessary to drive the innovation and the development of that society’s economy. Since knowledge is the most important resource that can drive economic and social development, knowledge society is that society where education goes beyond its traditional borders and technologies become basic elements for the learning process. Over the past several decades, the theme of knowledge-based economy (KE) has become increasingly important, knowledge being seen as a source of economic growth and competitiveness in all economic sectors, however such development cannot occur and cannot be separated from educational development and IT&C.
Pdf Version
CONSIDERATIONS ON NATO’S ROLE IN DISASTER RELIEF OPERATIONS (DRO) WITH A SPECIAL FOCUS ON INTERVENTION IN PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE

POPA Ioan-Dan

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania

POPESCU Stelian

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
The global physical environment is changing more frequently and one of the consequences consist in the increased likelihood of the environmental failures (earthquakes, droughts, floods, famine etc). Disasters are a regular part of global life, whether caused by acts of nature or acts of man. These events become humanitarian emergencies when their effects impact on a society whose inherent resources are insufficient to absorb the impact and deal with the event’s consequences. Hence, NATO has assumed an important role in international disaster relief by becoming involved in the provision of relief following natural disasters, all these being in accordance with the founding principles of the Alliance. The purpose of this paper is to spotlight the importance of NATO’s specific structures dealing with disaster relief (EADRCC - Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre, EADRU - Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Unit etc) and to present the main challenges of the intervention in Pakistan earthquake (2005). At the same time, it will be given a better understanding of NATO’s role in DRO, by discussing its added value based on the Pakistan case study, and, eventually, will be identified some areas for improvement.
Pdf Version
THE RELEVANCE OF THE OPERATING CONCEPTS IN THE DEFENSE PLANNING PROCESS

RAȚIU Aurelian

"Nicolae Bălcescu" Land Forces Academy/ Sibiu/ Romania
Abstract
The operating concepts are multipurpose and comprehensive elements. They are not used only as one of the starting points to required future capabilities of the armed forces but they also form the foundation of military doctrines. They also represent a basic for the lower degree operating concepts, or the institutional or functional concepts. They unify the joint efforts and principal directions towards the achievement of future goals and missionns of the armed forces. Upon aligning the existing and required capabilities in the Defense Planning Process (DPP) it is not possible to eliminate all riscks. Under restricted availability of resources it is necessary to focus the efforts on the priorities of the development of the capabilities addressing the most probable riscks and riscks with the highest impact. The paper focuses on the position and role of the operating concepts in the defense planning process and their importance for mid-and long-term planning.
Pdf Version
THE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE: AN ASSET FOR MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS

SOARE Alexandru

---
Abstract
The world is in constant change. Thus, adapting to the environment, has been, it is and must be not only a future quality but also a human capability. “Cancellation” of physical borders between nations by the appearance and operation of supranational organizations, like UE and NATO, creates advantages such as free movement of people and goods, but also agreements in the field of peacekeeping and defense policy in order to maintain their own independency. This course requires significant interaction between the states, reflected both in the concept of intercultural communication and communication as well, which become decisive factors in the process of cooperation, whether at the individual or society level, but and more importantly between armies.
Pdf Version
THE BUILDING OF THE STATE DEFENCE CAPACITY BASED ON A TERRITORIAL DEFENCE SYSTEM

Soboń Andrzej

The War Studies University, National Security Faculty, Warsaw, Poland
Abstract
Geopolitical situation of Poland in XXI century is very complicated. The main source of threats is the Russian sphere of influence in eastern Europe with concept of superpower domination. In this scope the national security strategy based on operational forces supported by NATO alliance is not enough during conflict. Membership of Poland in NATO obliges to develop individual capacity to resist armed assault without depriving her of sovereignty for defence of state. Poland must be ready to individual defence own territory. Keeping of defensive ability to protect area of state must requires Territorial Defence. The building of the Territorial Defence is the current challenge for Poland and was presented in article.
Pdf Version
TACKLING CYBER ATTACKS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

Tache Ileana

Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business Admnistration/ Brasov/ Romania

DOVLEAC Lavinia

Transilvania University of Brasov/ Faculty of Marketing/ Brasov/ / Romania
Abstract
Cyberattacks affect both individuals and companies and the damages have a long term effect. Companies in the European Union (EU) are spending more to safeguard their digital assets, but cybercrimes are still growing in frequency and severity. What's needed now isn't more security, but better security. The unprecedented cybercriminal activity is generating so much cyber spending, it’s become nearly impossible for analysts to accurately track. Many corporations are hesitant to announce breaches they’ve suffered and the amounts of their increased security budgets, for fears of reputational damage and of antagonizing cybercriminals. The aim of this paper is to highlight the necessity for EU companies to protect better from cyber attacks by investing more in consulting services, protection services, cyber insurance. The objectives of this paper are: to perform an evaluation of the problems faced by the organisations because of cyber attacks and to offer some solutions for cyber protection – linked to the EU policies in this field.
Pdf Version
COMPREHENSIVE RESOURCES PLANNING OVER THE MARITIME SECURITY OPERATIONS

VLAD Valentin – Cătălin

Romanian Fleet Command/Chief of Operations/Constanta/Romania
Abstract
This article is trying to emphasize the need of Maritime Security Operations for a comprehensive resource planning that has to be done in accordance with the provisions of the national strategies and the allied ones. In this respect, the guidance is given by the National Defense Strategy, White Book of Defense, National Military Strategy, NATO Strategic Concept, EU Global Strategy, EU Maritime Strategy, international and national laws with the goal to identify the main courses of action and the possibilities to maximize the effect of defense planning in supporting the Maritime Security Operations (MSO). Current evolving challenges and threats to maritime security environment – terrorism, piracy, armed robbery, human trafficking, narcotics and migration – are forcing the maritime nations to seek for a comprehensive operational preparation of the forces that are to be declared and transferred to conduct MSO. Even though this kind of operations are by nature positioning outside the symmetrical war dimension, but it might evolve into one, the preparation of the MSO deployable forces have to cover firstly the war fighting capabilities in all domains and then the needs of such of the particular operation. For a better understanding this study is briefly presenting a point of view regarding the Maritime Security and the resources process that might be considered to generate, transfer and sustain the capabilities during the conduct of MSO.
Pdf Version